Classification of Raw Materials

Starting from the building materials, raw materials are derived by means of formulas (“recipes”). Appropriate sources for building material formulas are, among others, Ökobaudat, Wecobis as well as the declarations made by manufacturers of construction products and trade associations for construction products. Raw material classifications are based on national raw material reporting (Lutter et al. 2018), regional plans and similar plans.

Raw material allocations are available for most of the mineral building materials. For each building material group, a relevant building material was selected, its formula determined and used as a proxy for all other building materials in the building material group. In each case, the building material was selected that occurs most often in the buildings (in t/m³ gross volume) in terms of mass (basis: analysis of residential building types). The associated uncertainties should be taken into consideration (Schiller et al. 2022).

The allocation method used for the mineral building materials can be transferred to the non-mineral building materials.

If ingredients are listed in the formulas that have already undergone a manufacturing process, these are also broken down further according to their manufacturing formula (e.g. cement).
Water is not recorded here in terms of quantity and is not shown as a raw material, knowing full well that it is required in many manufacturing processes. If water is present, it is "calculated out" of the formula. This increases the proportions of the other ingredients accordingly.

ID Building material group Building material representant   Main ingredients % Raw material category
1 Concrete Normal concrete C20/25-C25/30   Aggregate 86,21 Gravel/grit
        Limestone marl 8,77 Solid rock
        Additives and admixtures 1,94 Additives
        Granulated blastfurnace slag 1,78 Additives
        Gypsum/Anhydrite 0,59 Solid rock
        Limestone 0,59 Solid rock
        Burnt shale 0,06 Solid rock
        Fly ash 0,06 Additives
2 Lightweight concrete Lightweight concrete   Expanded clay 32,95 Loose rock
        Light sand 28,41 Sand
        Limestone marl 21,02 Solid rock
        Fly ash 10,37 Additives
        Granulated blastfurnace slag 4,26 Additives
        Limestone 1,42 Solid rock
        Gypsum/Anhydrite 1,42 Solid rock
        Burnt shale 0,14 Solid rock
3 Bricks Vertical coring bricks   Clay/clay/marl 82 Loose rock
        Limestone 8,7 Solid rock
        Sand 8,7 Sand
        Expand. Polystyrene 0,6 Additives
4 Bricks with insulation Bricks (filled with insulating material)   Clay/loam   Loose rock
        Filler (e.g. polystyrene)   Additives
        Lean agent (e.g. sand)   Sand
5 Brick cover/roof tiles Standard tiles   Clay/loam 98,77 Loose rock
        Engobe 1,23 Additives
6 Asbestos cement panels Transite panels   Limestone   Solid rock
        Granulated blastfurnace slag   Additives
        Gypsum/Anhydrite   Solid rock
        Burnt shale   Solid rock
        Fly ash   Additives
        Asbestos   Solid rock
        Limestone marl   Solid rock
7 Asbestos roofing Transite panels   Asbestos   Solid rock
        Fly ash   Additives
        Burnt shale   Solid rock
        Gypsum/Anhydrite   Solid rock
        Granulated blastfurnace slag   Additives
        Limestone   Solid rock
        Limestone marl   Solid rock
8 Calcareous plaster mortar Lime motar, lime-cement mortar   Sand 78,62 Sand
        Hydrated lime 21,38 Solid rock
9 Plaster and mortar containing gypsum and anhydrite Lime-gypsum mortar, gypsum mortar   Sand 77,5 Sand
        Hydrated lime 18,2 Solid rock
        Building plaster 4,3 Solid rock
10 Clay and loamy plaster and mortar Clay plaster   Sand (0 - 2 mm) 69,7 Sand
        Clay powder 30,1 Loose rock
        Straw chaff fine 0,2 Additives
11 Plasters with synthetic components Thermal insulation plaster   Limestone marl 54,15 Solid rock
        Lime 19,59 Solid rock
        Granulated blastfurnace slag 10,98 Additives
        Expand. Polystyrene 6,72 Additives
        Limestone 3,66 Solid rock
        Gypsum/Anhydrite 3,66 Solid rock
        Admixture 0,52 Additives
        Burnt shale 0,37 Solid rock
        Fly ash 0,37 Additives
12 Calcareous screeds Cement screed   Sand/aggregate 85 Gravel/grit
        Limestone marl 10,88 Solid rock
        Granulated blastfurnace slag 2,21 Additives
        Gypsum/Anhydrite 0,74 Solid rock
        Limestone 0,74 Solid rock
        Additives 0,3 Additives
        Fly ash 0,07 Additives
        Burnt shale 0,07 Solid rock
13 Screeds containing gypsum and anhydrite Anhydrite screed   Sand 66,67 Sand
        Anhydrite 33,33 Solid rock
14 Dry screed containing gypsum and anhydrite Dry floor screed (gypsum fibre board)   Gypsum   Solid rock
        RC paper fibers   Additives
15 Screeds with synthetic components Mastic asphalt screed   Bitumen   Additives
        Aggregate   Gravel/grit
16 Sand-lime bricks Sand-lime brick   Quartz sand 88,86 Industry minerals
        Quicklime 7,99 Solid rock
        Aggregates 3,15 Additives
17 Aerated concrete blocks Aerated concrete   Sand 58,92 Sand
        Limestone marl 16,58 Solid rock
        Quicklime 15 Solid rock
        Anhydrite/Gypsum 3,6 Solid rock
        Granulated blastfurnace slag 3,36 Additives
        Gypsum/Anhydrite 1,12 Solid rock
        Limestone 1,12 Solid rock
        Fly ash 0,11 Additives
        Burnt shale 0,11 Solid rock
        Aluminum 0,08 Additives
18 Concrete blocks Concrete hollow blocks   Pumice 77 Solid rock
        Basalt 11 Solid rock
        Limestone marl 8,14 Solid rock
        Granulated blastfurnace slag 1,65 Additives
        Fly ash 1,06 Additives
        Gypsum/Anhydrite 0,55 Solid rock
        Limestone 0,55 Solid rock
        Burnt shale 0,06 Solid rock
19 Mud bricks Clay infill   Wood chips 66,67 Additives
        Fat building clay 33,33 Loose rock
20 (Gypsum) plasterboards Plasterboard wall panels   Burnt gypsum 95 Solid rock
        Cardboard 5 Additives
21 Mineral building boards Aerated concrete panels   Limestone marl 62,16 Solid rock
        Granulated blastfurnace slag 12,6 Additives
        Limestone powder 9 Solid rock
        Gypsum/Anhydrite 4,2 Solid rock
        Limestone 4,2 Solid rock
        Pulp 3 Additives
        Polyethylene fibrids 2 Additives
        Polyvinyl alcohol 2 Additives
        Fly ash 0,42 Additives
        Burnt shale 0,42 Solid rock
22 Mineral thermal insulation materials Lightweight wood fibre panel   Aggregate 45,26 Gravel/grit
        Threads from rocks (diabase or basalt and dolomite, limestone, cement, coke) 45 Solid rock
        Limestone marl 4,61 Solid rock
        Urea-modified phenol-formaldehyde resins 2,3 Additives
        Additives and admixtures 1,02 Additives
        Granulated blastfurnace slag 0,93 Additives
        Gypsum/Anhydrite 0,31 Solid rock
        Limestone 0,31 Solid rock
        Mineral oils, if necessary 0,1 Additives
        Lamination (e.g. aluminum foil, glass fleece) 0,1 Additives
        Burnt shale 0,03 Solid rock
        Fly ash 0,03 Additives
        Molded bricks from defibering waste 0 Additives
23 Concrete roof tile covering Concrete roofing tiles   Quartz sand 78,45 Industry minerals
        Limestone marl 14,9 Solid rock
        Granulated blastfurnace slag 3,02 Additives
        Gypsum/Anhydrite 1,01 Solid rock
        Limestone 1,01 Solid rock
        Coating 0,98 Additives
        Pigments 0,44 Additives
        Fly ash 0,1 Additives
        Burnt shale 0,1 Solid rock
24 Fiber cement roofing Fibre cement facade panel   Pulp   Additives
        Polyvinyl alcohol fibers   Additives
        Polyethylene fibrids   Additives
        Pigments   Additives
        Limestone marl   Solid rock
        Limestone powder   Solid rock
        Limestone   Solid rock
        Granulated blastfurnace slag   Additives
        Gypsum/Anhydrite   Solid rock
        Burnt shale   Solid rock
        Fly ash   Additives
        Acrylate (coating)   Additives
        Microsilica, quartz sand and trass   Industry minerals
25 Slate cover Slate   Shale 100 Solid rock
26 Substrate layer (green roof) Vegetation substrate        
27 Mineral fillings Sand, gravel, grit   Sand, gravel, chippings 100 Gravel/grit
28 Glass Glass   Quartz sand 58 Industry minerals
        Soda 18 Additives
        Dolomite 15 Solid rock
        Limestone 5 Solid rock
        Broken glass 3 Additives
        Sulfate 1 Additives
29 Natural bricks Quarry stone        
30 Other mineral building materials Ceramics   Clays 52 Loose rock
        Feldspars 27 Loose rock
        Kaolin 8 Loose rock
        Glazes/tempering 5 Additives
        Limestone 4 Solid rock
        Sand 4 Sand