Building Material Classification

The building material classification is orientated to the information needs of the actors from various levels of action and subject areas. It is based on a life-cycle approach and offers a continual  view of the material flows taking place – from raw materials (extraction from the environment)  to the building materials themselves to the waste categories (source for secondary materials). In the course of this, emissions referenced to life-cycles are considered.

The building material system differentiates 46 building material categories, under which approx. 130 individual building materials are subsumed. The 46 building material categories are grouped into ten categories (i.e. seven categories for the diagram representations).


Starting from the building materials:

•    raw materials are derived by means of formulas (“recipes”). The classification of the raw material categories is based on the standard classifications of national and regional raw material planning. 
•    waste categories that arise during demolition are defined with the aid of the waste classification list (AVV)
•    material-induced emissions (grey emissions) are ascertained by linking with environmental impact data from Ökobaudat.


Building material category ID Building material group Building material
Concrete 1 Concrete Normal concrete C8/10, normal concrete C12/15-C16/20, normal concrete C20/25-C25/30, concrete
  2 Lightweight concrete Lightweight concrete, cement-bonded wood fibre
Bricks 3 Bricks Clinker bricks, solid bricks, vertical coring bricks, lightweight vertical coring bricks
  4 Bricks with insulation Bricks filled with insulating material
  5 Brick cover/roof tiles Standard tiles, beavertail tiles
Asbestos 6 Asbestos cement panels Transite panels
  7 Asbestos roofing Asbestos cement plates
Other minerals 8 Calcareous plaster mortar Lime motar, lime-cement mortar, cement motar, thin-bed mortar, lime-cement plaster, lime plaster
  9 Plaster and mortar containing gypsum and anhydrite Lime-gypsum mortar, gypsum mortar, plaster, calcium sulphate screed, gypsum interior plaster, gypsum
  10 Clay and loamy plaster and mortar Clay plaster, clay plaster motar, clays (shale, clay, marl)
  11 Plasters with synthetic components Thermal insulation plaster
  12 Calcareous screeds Cement screed
  13 Screeds containing gypsum and anhydrite Anhydrite screed
  14 Dry screed containing gypsum and anhydrite Dry floor screed (gypsum fibre board)
  15 Screeds with synthetic components Mastic asphalt screed
  16 Sand-lime bricks Sand-lime bricks
  17 Aerated concrete blocks Aerated concrete, aerated concrete breezeblocks, lightweight concrete blocks, lightweight concrete blocks, pumice stone
  18 Concrete blocks Concrete hollow blocks, slag bricks, concrete paving stone
  19 Mud bricks Clay infill, adobe, lightweight loam bricks
  20 (Gypsum) plasterboards Plasterboard wall panels, plasterboard wall panels, gypsum wallboard
  21 Mineral building boards Aerated concrete panels, lightweight concrete wall panels, fibre-cement panels -flat, fibre-cement panels - corrugated 
  22 Mineral thermal insulation materials Lightweight wood fibre panel, mineral wool (stone wool, glass wool), glass foam, blast furnace slag, expanded clay, glass wool, perlites
  23 Concrete roof tile covering Concrete roofing tiles
  24 Fiber cement roofing Fibre cement facade panel
  25 Slate cover Slate
  26 Substrate layer (green roof) Vegetation substrate
  27 Mineral fillings Sand/gravel/grit, sand/clay/cinders, granulatd slag, gravel, quartz sand, sand, grit, crushed stone
  28 Glass Glass, wired glass, glass mosaic
  29 Natural bricks Quarry stone, granite/basalt/marble, sandstone/coquina
  30 Other mineral building materials Ceramics, tiles
Other renewable 31 Timber/Lumber Timber planks, squared timber, coniferous lumber - kiln dried
  32 Processed wood Laminated wood, plywood, chipboards, hardboard, wood fibre insulation boards, wood windows
Wood, engineered woods 33 Renewable thermal insulation materials Reed panel, cork panels, cellulose fibre board, lightweight wood fibre, cellulose fibre blowing insulation material, reed, straw
  34 Straw/Reed cover Wood shingles, straw
  35 Other materials non-mineral Cardboard, paper, corrugated base paper, paper
Plastics 36 Petroleum-based thermal insulation materials Polystyrene rigid foam (expanded-EPS, extruded-XPS), polyurethane (PUR) rigid foam, phenolic resin (PR) rigid foam, XPS, insulation board
  37 Plastic roofing Plastic roof sheeting
  38 Petroleum-based coverings, geomembranes PVC sheeting, PE sheeting, PE/PP fleece, PE-PP fleece, damp insulation PE, waterproofing sheets, rubber sealing compound
Bitouminous minerals 39 Bitumen roofing Bitumen roof sheeting
  40 Bituminous coverings, waterproofing membranes Bitumen sheets, mastic asphalt screed, bitumen emulsion
Ferrous metals 41 Metal roofing Sheet metal plates
  42 Ferrous metals Reinforcement steel wire/wire, cast iron, steel sheet hot dip galvanized, hot dip galvanized steel, structural steel: sections and plates
Non-ferrous metals 43 Coverings containing aluminum, sealing membranes Aluminium sheeting, aluminum waterproofing membrane
  44 Aluminum Aluminium, aluminium windows
  45 Copper Copper
  46 Other non-ferrous metals Zinc, lead